Hardscape & Pavers
Pavers & blocks provide high design capabilities
||Concrete masonry units (also called pavers, concrete pavers, paving stones, paving block, and brick pavers) are used for paving driveways, access lanes, parking areas, streets, plazas, shopping malls, walks, patios, swimming pool decks, floors-on-grade, and other flat surfaces. They are also used for sloped paving under highway or railway grade-separation structures or other steep embankments to prevent soil erosion, particularly where grass will not grow to protect the surface. Grid pavers are used where reduced stormwater runoff is desired. Pavers are produced in a wide range of shapes and colors, and are relatively easy to install with only a few tools. |
Applications for concrete pavers include:
- Access lanes
- Parking areas
- Swimming pool decks
- Shopping malls
- Walking paths
Pavers are affordable and durable in any climate. Concrete’s flexibility allows a variety of colors, textures and shapes. Colored and textured pavers can be used to tie outdoor spaces into the surrounding built and natural environment. Color can be tied to the exterior facade or surrounding vegetation. Pavers are just as pleasing indoors as they are outdoors. From a real estate marketing standpoint, pavers enhances the prestige and value of property. Pavers can easily be maintained.
Pavers provide many benefits. See associated sustainability solutions and technical briefs (right) for more detail.
Reduced site stormwater runoff rate and quantity. Permeable interlocking pavers (grid pavers) allow more stormwater to be infiltrated on site and slow the speed of stormwater running overland. Infiltration can also reduce pollutant loading from vehicles. May contribute to LEED Credit SS 6.
Regional/Local procurement. Most pavers are manufactured regionally. May contribute to LEED Credit M 5.
Reduced heat island effect. Many pavers have high reflectance (albedo). May contribute to LEED Credit SS 7.
Reuse potential. Pavers, especially when laid in sand beds, are easy to pick up and reuse elsewhere. May contribute to LEED Credit M 3, if re-using salvaged pavers.
Energy savings. Thermal mass for passive solar and other buildings when used for indoor floors. May contribute to LEED Credit EA 1.
||Size. The largest paver size is 6-1/2 in. wide, 9-1/2 in. long, and 5-1/2 in. thick, but pavers can be much smaller. |
Strength. The compressive strength is at least 8000 psi.
Installation. Begins by preparing a subgrade that is hard, uniform, free from foreign matter, and well drained. Paving units are usually bedded in sand, although a durable air-entrained mortar is sometimes used. Sand bedding gives long-lasting results and is suited for most applications, from industrial to do-it-yourself. Edge restraint such as precast or cast-in-place curbs, steel
and plastic restrainers, anchored timber, or existing structures usually is needed to prevent the units from creeping apart.
Maintenance. Units installed in sand bedding are easily lifted for maintenance work or relocation, if desired.
|Airfield Pavement Design with Concrete Pavers (Canadian Edition)
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #76505, 80 pages
Regular $36.00 (Member $18.00)
Transport Canada approved design method for aircraft parking area, taxiways and turning area. Follows Canadian design procedure based on critical aircraft loads and the McLeod method.
Airfield Pavement Design with Concrete Pavers (US Edition)
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #76504, 100 pages
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved design method for aircraft parking, taxiways and turning areas. Follows FAA design procedure based on critical aircraft loads. This publication is available for a fee from the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute.
Backyards & Boulevards
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #75300, 192 pages
Available for $25 members, $29.95 non-member.
The endless possibilities for residential, commercial and municipal applications fill this book with over 300 pictures. They demonstrate how paver patterns, colors and textures enliven backyard patios, plazas, shopping centers, recreation facilites and residential and commercial districts. This book is a source for design inspiration for manufacturers, contractors and design professionals. This publication is availbale form the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institue.
Complete Business Manual for Concrete Paver Contractors
Charles Vander Kooi, Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #75100, 240 pages
Available for $60 member, $100 non-member.
A comprehensive guide on estimating, bidding, people and company management and planning. This book has the keys to business success for all sizes of concrete paver contracting companies. This publication is available for a fee from Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institue's bookstore.
Concrete Systems for Homes and Low-Rise Construction
Vanderwerf, P., Portland Cement Association, Item Code SP405, 576 pages
For purchase for $75.
Fast gaining on more traditional homebuilding materials, concrete systems save builders time, money, and headaches. Offering durability, cost savings, energy efficiency, and eye-pleasing aesthetics, concrete systems now account for large shares of the walls, floors, roofs, finishes, and landscape products in small buildings in the United States.
But are concrete systems right for you and your construction crew? And if so, which ones? This is the place to find out. Written by experts from the Portland Cement Association, Concrete Systems for Homes & Low-Rise Construction provides expert, straightforward answers on concrete systems. Open these pages for everything you want to know about availability of products, evaluating concrete systems for homes and low-rise buildings, requirements for application, managing projects, and much more. Based on case histories, field research, and hands-on-the-hammer experience, and with more than 325 photos and illustrations, this one-stop resource shows and tells what you want to know. It's a huge time and money saver!
For each new concrete system for residences, you'll find:
• Properties and advantages
• Logistics of construction
• Connections to other concrete systems
• Materials and labor costs of installation
• Code and regulatory issues
• Technical and testing information
• Sources of additional information
Patios, Driveways, and Plazas
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #75200, 192 pages
Available for $25 member, $29.95 non-member.
Concrete pavers are one of the hottest pavements around homes, commercial buildings and urban spaces. Designers know that the selection of pavement patterns and colors have a big influence on the character of these places. In this book, you'll learn the design vocabulary of basic paving patterns and progress to more intricate variations. Each of the 300+ color photos demonstrates how specific patterns, colors and textures enhance every outdoor environment--from the smallest backyard patio to the grandest urban plaza. Some of the best projects from across North America illustrate this book. Written for landscape architects, architects, contractors, and homeowners alike, this is the design handbook for concrete pavers.
Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #76602, 54 pages
Available for $10 member, $20 non-member.
A guide for design specification, construction and maintenance of pervious pavement made with concrete pavers. Guides designers on using this best management practice for control of stormwater runoff and nonpoint source water pollution.
B. K. Ferguson, Portland Cement Association, Item Code: LT 291, 557 pages
Available for $160.
This text book on pervious pavement technology covers concrete, asphalt, paving blocks, and others. With its clear explanation and evaluation of each type, it allows landscape architects, civil engineers, and contractors to review and choose materials to meet site-specific conditions. Installation methods, performance levels, and appropriate applications are all addressed. Numerous case studies are included.
Port and Industrial Pavement Design with Concrete Pavers
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #76506, 101 pages
Available for $18 member, $36 non-member.
Second Edition Port pavement design based on finite-element modeling and adapted from the British Ports Association. Sample specifications, examples, and design details for new and overlay design for industrial, bulk and container facilities.
Project Profiles - Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute
Available for $1.
Twelve-page color brochure with 33 pictures and tables showcases eight permeable interlocking concrete pavement projects across North America. The profiles demonstrate that permeable pavers work in practically every climate and soils, addressing local, state and national mandates to reduce runoff and water pollution.
Several projects are also profiled in our case study section.
The Patio Portfolio
Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, #75400, 128 pages
This publication is available for $16.95 members, 19.95 regular.
This award-winning publication includes over 200 photos of the finest patio projects designed to inspire design professionals, contractors and homeowners.
UK research into the performance of permeable pavement, reservoir structures in controlling...
...stormwater discharge quantity and quality, C.J. Pratt, J.D.G. Mantle and P.A. Schofield, Water Science and Technology, Volume 32, Issue 1,Pages 63-69,
The paper reports on a field study on a permeable, reservoir pavement constructed in 1986 at Nottingham, UK; surfaced with permeable, concrete block paving; and with a different sub-base stone-type in each of four reservoirs, from which the discharges were monitored for quantity and water quality. Hydrological relationships involving rainfall, outflow, outflow duration and antecedent conditions are presented. Water quality parameters are shown to be stable in value after some six months, by which time surface contaminants on the sub-base stone had been washed out of the construction. As outflow volume is reduced and water quality parameters (SS and Pb) are low in value, pollutant outflow loadings are significantly lower than with traditional, impermeable surfaces.
Achieving LEED® Credits with Segmental Concrete Pavements—Part 1
Rob Burek, P.Eng.-ICPI Director of Engineering, Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine, May, 2006
This 3 page article reviewed the U.S. and Canadian Green Building Councils LEED® versions for new construction. It provides the why behind LEED®, i.e. a project checklist used voluntarily that aims to reduce construction, energy and water-related operating costs while reducing environmental impacts. It also explains how permeable interlocking concrete pavement can contribute LEED® points through Sustainable Sites (SS) via stormwater management. In addition SS points can be earned through reducing urban heat island on parking lots and roofs, by reducing construction waste, reusing pavers and by using recycled materials, using materials made from within the region as well as proposing innovative design and using durable materials. Applications: Stormwater Design and Management, Heat Island Reduction, Recycling, Regional Manufacturing, Waste Management.
Achieving LEED® Credits with Segmental Concrete Pavements—Part 2
Rob Burak, P.Eng.-ICPA Director of Engineering, Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine, August, 2006
This 4 page article continues from the May issue on how LEED® credits can be earned under the five principal categories. It details how points Sustainable Sites (SS) can be earned through heat island effect both in non roof and roof, material and resources, by reducing construction waste, resource reuse, by using recycled materials, using materials manufactured within the region as well as incorporating innovative improvements in building materials and design and durable materials. Applications: Heat Island Effect, Materials and Resources, Construction Waste Management, Resource Reuse, Recycled Content, Regional Materials, Innovation and Design Process, Durable Materials.
Concrete Homes Technology Brief: Concrete Pavers
Portland Cement Association. Item Code: IS 317, 2 pages
Free to download.
This Tech Brief (No. 18) is designed in a single page format and written in a non-technical style intended to inform the building industry and consumers of the various benefits of concrete pavers. Homebuyers want paving that complements their residences and lifestyles. Builders can answer this demand with concrete pavers… and increase sales at the same time. A growing number of builders use concrete pavers with other exterior features to add style to landscaping that increase curb appeal and sales.
North Carolina State University Evaluates Permeable Pavements
David R. Smith, Kelly A. Collins and William F. Hunt, III, Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine, November 2006
The Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department at North Carolina State University is taking a second look at permeable pavements at a test site in Kinston, NC. The project evaluates runoff from four types of permeable pavement and asphalt. Preliminary results show substantial runoff volume and peak flow reductions, the verdict is expected to confirm the effectiveness of permeable pavements in water quality improvement.
Sedimentation of Pervious Concrete Pavement Systems
Pervious concrete pavement systems (PCPS) are a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth, by capturing stormwater and allowing it to infiltrate into the underlying soil. Sedimentation leading to clogging is a potential problem in serviceability of PCPS.
Solar Reflectance of Concretes for LEED Sustainable Sites Credit: Heat Island Effect
by Medgar L. Marceau and Martha G. VanGeem
This report presents the results of solar reflectance testing on 135 concrete specimens from 45
concrete mixes, representing a broad range of concretes. This testing determined which
combinations of concrete constituents meet the solar reflectance index requirements in the
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Sustainable
Sites credit for reducing the heat island effect.
All concretes in this study had average solar reflectances of at least 0.30 (corresponding
to an SRI of at least 29), and therefore meet the requirements of LEED-NC SS 7.1. These
concretes also meet the requirements for steep-sloped roofs in LEED-NC SS 7.2. The lowest
solar reflectances were from concretes composed of dark gray fly ash.
The solar reflectance of the cement had more effect on the solar reflectance of the
concrete than any other constituent material. The solar reflectance of the supplementary
cementitious material had the second greatest effect.